Account Executive (AE)
In most advertising agencies, the primary contact between an agency and the client. AEs typically work with clients to determine the agency’s role on each project, defining and communicating those needs to the agency staff. AEs manage client projects, review and approve creative work and monitor budgets.
The functional area responsible for interacting with clients. Account Supervisors, Account Executives and Project Managers are all part of the Account Services team.
Any of a variety of methods used to qualitatively or quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of an advertisement. Pre-testing involves showing different ad prototypes to groups to determine which is the most effective. Post-testing typically involves interviewing readers to determine how many remember seeing a particular ad, if they read it, and what they remember about it.
A paid advertisement that presents information in an editorial format, often with large amounts of text, rather than large photos typically used for display ads.
The functional area responsible for activities related to creating and producing each project, including concept development, copywriting, design, public relations, illustration, photography and printing.
Employee who develops concepts, directs vendors and creates layouts and artwork that combine images and words to deliver your message.
The check box on a form or response card; a box into which responses can be deposited for later collection.
A labeling method comprised of a series of black bars, used for highly efficient electronic tracking or distribution. There are several different barcode standards, or symbologies, in use today. UPC-A and UPC-E are used in grocery stores. Code 39 is a common inventory tracking code. The Post Office uses an ASCII-based barcode to expedite processing and delivery, and offers lower postage rates for mail pieces that are barcoded. Also see UPC.
billing in process
The practice of invoicing for work performed to-date while projects are still under way.
A Reader Response Card-resembling a BINGO game card-that is bound into a publication and enables readers to request additional information from advertisers by circling the number that corresponds to a specific ad or offer in the publication.
A term used to describe ink coverage that extends all the way to the edge of an ad or printed piece. This is accomplished by printing on paper larger than the finished size of a publication/printed piece, then trimming the paper to the desired size.
The act of inserting business reply cards or other printed matter loosely into a publication. So named because they are literally blown into the publications by a machine prior to mailing.
In offset printing, a final proof made from the film. The blueline is made from color separations and assembled to demonstrate exactly how the printed piece will fold. A blueline represents the final production stage for making revisions.
bitmap (BMP) image
An electronic image file mapped on a grid (raster) of small squares called pixels. Each pixel is assigned a specific location and color. Bitmap files are commonly used for photographs.
A customer reply card, generally included in direct mail pieces or publications to help collect customer data or generate leads.
Business reply card. A pre-addressed, postpaid card typically used to generate response to an offer.
Business reply envelope. A pre-addressed, postpaid envelope that allows a prospect to conveniently respond to an offer.
A pamphlet or booklet with four or more pages, often used for sales, promotion, information delivery or image-building. A standard brochure size is 8 ½” x 11″ when closed.
In direct mail, one or more small inserts-about the size of a dollar bill-included with a letter or brochure. Buckslips are used to emphasize special offers, or to summarize or reiterate an offer included in the letter/brochure.
In printing, a condition where material such as lint or paper dust collects on part of the press, possibly affecting the quality of the printed piece.
The thickness of a single sheet of paper or the thickness of a book exclusive of its cover. Also shipping materials in large quantities.
Material used to create film for printing (color separated, black-and-white line art).
Text typically beneath a photo, illustration or graphic that describes, explains or summarizes what is pictured.
A process used to select a vendor in which a company solicits proposals from a number of prospective suppliers.
The section of a publication where products and services are advertised for sale. Advertising is generally restricted to text only, although most large publications offer a variety of design options.
The functional area responsible for activities related to accounting, billing and reporting procedures.
A business that reviews publications for articles that contain information about a specific company or product, typically to help measure public relations efforts. Companies contract with a clipping service and provide “key words” to be searched. When clipping service personnel locate an article that includes one or more of the key words, they note the publication name and date and send the clips to their client.
The deadline for reserving advertising space in a specific issue of a publication.
Refers to the four process colors-cyan, magenta, yellow and black-used in 4-color printing.
Papers that have been coated with a substance or compound to alter the paper’s surface. Common coated paper surfaces include gloss, dull, matte and embossed. Coated paper tends to print more sharply and produce truer images (illustrations, photography, etc.) because inks do not absorb as readily. Gloss and matte surfaces offer easier reading for large quantities of text.
The process of separating full-color originals into process colors (cyan, magenta, yellow and black) for printing. Separations are used to make film, which is subsequently used to make the printing plates that actually apply the inks on a press.
In media advertising, printed rates typically include a 15% commission allowance for ad agencies. The commission is granted if the agency meets certain criteria, such as submitting ads in a particular format.
A layout prepared to resemble, as closely as possible, the finished project. Comps are often created for ads, brochures, packaging, etc.
The process of testing approaches, positioning statements or creative presentations before a new product or ad is developed further. Concept testing can help predict acceptance and suitability of a product or the effectiveness of an ad.
Ideas generated to promote a product/service, typically using different appeals.
A written summary of discussions and activities from an agency/client meeting.
A written summary of an interaction between a companies employee and a client or vendor.
Non-paid circulation limited to persons who meet certain qualifications set by the publication. (e.g., job title, type of industry).
A process of gathering input from a target group to help determine the effectiveness and appropriateness of written text. This can help predict the effectiveness of text in an ad or other published work.
The right to copy or authorize the copying of creative work. Anyone creating original work automatically owns the rights to that work, unless provisions have been made to transfer the copyright.
A person who writes the text (copy) for a project.
An ad that is bound onto the outside of a magazine, literally wrapping the cover and ensuring that every recipient sees the ad.
Cost per thousand (refers to the Roman numeral M for 1,000).
The group of writers and art directors assigned to a project.
Marks that appear in the margins of an illustration/photo/page to indicate the precise area to be used or reproduced.
A light-blue color. One of the four inks used in 4-color process printing.
A collection of bits of information that can be grouped, collated, sorted and analyzed in numerous ways to provide a variety of information and reports.
Use of computer hardware and software to prepare page layouts (text and graphics).
A printed document that provides information designed to be delivered by a sales representative in a face-to-face setting.
The use of sharp, steel rules to cut shapes in printed material, such as a “window” that lets you see through the cover of a brochure.
Newspaper or magazine advertising, other than classified advertising, typically using words and images, in black and white or in full color.
Boring holes in printed materials, typically to allow for insertion into a binder.
Data Transmission Network. A satellite communications network that provides subscribers with news and weather information via dedicated terminals. Commonly used by bankers, stockbrokers and agribusiness professionals to monitor industry news.
Ebbinghaus Memory Retention Curve
Named for researcher Hermann Ebbinghaus, this classic “relearning and forgetting” model illustrates that frequent repetition of a message on successive occasions greatly enhances retention of the message.
All non-commercial news material in a publication, (i.e., everything that is not advertising).
Communicating with a publication’s writer or editor, typically to discuss public relations stories or initiatives.
The desire of editors to maintain impartiality in the news content of their publications. Generally used in reference to the separation of advertising and editorial.
A computer file such as text, graphics, photographs, etc.
electronic storage media
The disk, tape or other physical media on which electronic files are stored.
A process that stamps an image into the surface of paper, using engraved metal dies, extreme pressure and heat.
Embossing styles include:
- embossed: A raised design created by making an impression on the reverse side.
- debossed: A depressed design created by making an impression into the surface.
- foil: An impression that applies a thin metallic “foil” to a design.
- blind: An impression that does not align with a printed or foil image.
- print: An impression that aligns with a printed image.
In the United States, common envelope sizes include:
- Monarch (7 1/2″ x 3 7/8″)
- #10 (91/2″ x 41/8″)
- #12 (11″ x 43/4″)
- 6″ x 9″
- 9″ x 12″
European standard envelopes include the B5 (176 x 250 mm) and the C5 (162 x 229 mm).
Encapsulated PostScriptT A computer file format used in professional graphic design.
An approximate cost for a proposed project.
The pattern of a reader’s eye movements as he or she views an ad, brochure or publication layout. Eye-tracking studies help design professionals create layouts that effectively convey information in the desired sequence by ensuring that elements are presented in the order in which they will most likely be viewed by the reader.
An article that employs news-writing techniques to describe a subject.
Celluloid material used to create photographs, either by creating negatives or positives (transparencies).
The photographic film used to create the plates that are installed on a printing press.
five- or six-color
Generally, the addition of one or more “spot” colors to a 4-color piece. This is usually done to accurately print a specific color for a logo, to emphasize a certain color, or to add a coating, such as UV or varnish.
The scheduled broadcast dates for radio and television advertisements.
Flesch Readability Index
A formula, named for its inventor, Dr. Rudolph Flesch, used to calculate the ease or difficulty of comprehending text in a document, based on sentence length and number of syllables used.
A one-page, two-sided promotional vehicle, generally 8½” x 11″ in size.
Application to paper stock (generally cover stock) of a metallic, tissue-like material that resembles foil, available in a variety of colors and patterns.
A single typeface, typically consisting of all standard alphabetical characters-uppercase and lowercase letters, numerals, punctuation and special characters.
Text at the bottom of a page that explains or provides a reference source for a point made in the copy.
The process of simulating full-color using four separate inks, typically cyan (blue), magenta, yellow and black. This process is commonly used to reproduce full-color photographs and artwork.
Any standard advertising space smaller than a full page.
An image, illustration and graphic design program by Macromedia. Also a term used to describe graphics drawn by hand rather than using a mechanical device such as a PC.
Work done on a contract basis, typically by a self-employed individual.
free-standing insert (FSI)
A promotional piece loosely inserted or nested inside a publication.
The number of times an individual is exposed to an advertisement or other message. According to the Ebbinghaus Retention Curve, frequent repetition of a message on successive occasions greatly enhances retention of the message.
A reduced rate offered by media to advertisers who run or broadcast a specified number of advertisements within a given time period.
Order processing that includes documenting when an order was received, when and how it was shipped and when and how it was paid for.
A multi-page advertisement or brochure spread created by folding a double-sized page (or pages). These extended pages fold out, much like opening a gate, to reveal the entire advertisement or spread.
The CompuServe Graphics Interchange Format, commonly used to display color images on the World Wide Web. The GIF format uses a “lossless” compression equation to reduce file size without losing any image information. Typically used for line art or logos, where any information loss would be noticeable.
The maximum rate charged by media, including commissions and excluding any discounts; the sum total before any deductions.
A picture or illustration created with solid dots of varying sizes.
An informative or benefit-oriented statement, usually in large type, intended to quickly attract a reader’s attention and create interest in reading the copy. Simulating the subtle tone variations.
A visual image created using media such as pencil, pen, paint or PC.
A graphics program by Adobe. Also a professional graphic artist who creates images to convey a message.
Electronic alteration of a photo/illustration, including retouching, adjustments in color, and the removal of unwanted objects (such as shadows) or the addition of elements (such as product logos).
Mailing permit information that is preprinted on envelopes, BRCs, etc.
A stand-alone printed piece that is placed or bound into a publication.
General media term that refers to the item to be published (such as an advertisement) or broadcast (radio or television spot).
Written contract/notification for an ad placement, which includes dates of publication/broadcast, length, location, size, color and cost.
In a direct mail letter, a “headline” that precedes the salutation, designed to attract the reader’s attention or to quickly communicate the most appealing points of the enclosed offer.
The Joint Photographic Experts Group file format commonly used to display photographs and images on the World Wide Web. The JPEG format uses a “lossy” compression equation that reduces file size, but loses a small amount of image information. JPEGs are typically used for photographs, where slight information loss is not noticeable.
A clear, plastic coating applied to paper to enhance its durability, or the act of applying this coating. Laminates are available in varying degrees of rigidity.
An organization that handles the mechanical details of mailings such as addressing, imprinting, collating, etc. Most lettershops offer printing services including laser and inkjet printing.
lift letter/lift note
In direct mail, this is a second, shorter letter or note included with the promotional package. The lift letter/note provides an additional opportunity to promote the offer, address potential customer concerns or objections or reiterate key selling points.
One-color illustrations that can be printed without halftones.
Names and addresses of individuals and/or companies, often with common interests, characteristics or geographical locations.
live stamp/live postage
Using an actual postage stamp on direct mail pieces (instead of using a postage meter).
A mark or symbol that represents a company or product. Logos can include graphic elements, type or both.
An electronic graphics compression equation that reduces file size with no loss of image information. Lossless compression formats, like GIF, are typically used for line art or logos, where any information loss would be noticeable.
An electronic graphics compression equation that reduces file size, but also loses a small amount of image information. Lossy compression formats, like JPEG, are typically used for photographs, where slight information loss is not noticeable.
Small, cylindrical magnifying glass used by graphic arts professionals to inspect transparencies, printing films and other proofs.
These include the front cover (Cover 1), inside front cover (Cover 2), inside back cover (Cover 3) and back cover (Cover 4). Magazines typically charge a premium for advertisements that appear on Covers 2, 3 and 4.
Person responsible for writing, assigning and editing the non-advertising content of a magazine.
A fee added to a product or service passed along to a third party. Advertising agencies often mark-up third-party purchases by as little as 10% or as much as 50%.
In a publication, this is the listing of information about its staff, operations and circulation.
The deadline date by which advertising materials must be received by a publication in order to appear as scheduled.
Avenues for conveying advertising or publicity, including, but not limited to: publications, television, radio, billboards/transit advertising, direct mail and the World Wide Web.
Person who negotiates costs for advertising time and space.
Person who develops an advertising schedule that meets the objectives set for or by the client.
Team responsible for identifying strategic messages to be conveyed in communication pieces and advertising campaigns.
A model or sample item created by hand for evaluation, demonstration or testing. Also known as a “folding dummy” or “prototype.”
Legal form on which an individual agrees to allow use of his or her photograph for advertising purposes.
The banner or title area that indicates the name of a publication. Often misidentified as a masthead.
Amount paid to a media source by an advertising agency after deducting the agency’s commission.
See press release.
An item printed using any single ink color. For example, black ink (or any other color) on white paper is considered a 1-color project.
The terms promoting a specific product or service. An offer is made up of the price, payment terms, guarantees, future obligations, incentives, time limits, motivators and any other conditions stipulated at the time of sale.
The highest advertising rate before any discounts are earned.
A general term used to describe the manner in which something is presented to the public.
A page-layout program by Adobe. Graphic designers use Pagemaker to electronically manipulate text and graphics.
Total number of subscribers who pay to receive a publication (magazine, DTN service, etc.) on a regular basis.
Any of a variety of finish types, including smooth, linen, vellum and felt. Each of these surfaces provides different print quality and overall appearance.
Common paper sizes in the U.S. are: standard letter (8½” x 11″), legal (8½” x 14″) and tabloid (11″ x 17″). Common international paper sizes include: A4 (210 x 297 mm) and A3 (297 x 420 mm).
paper size, flat
The size of a printed page before folding or trimming.
paper size, finished
The size of a printed page after folding and/or cutting. For example, a 11″ x 17″ printed sheet might be folded to 11″ x 8 ½” to create a 4-panel brochure.
A graphics file format commonly used by IBM-compatible computers with the PC Paintbrush software program.
Portable Document Format. An electronic file format created by Adobe Acrobat that works under Macintosh, Windows, UNIX and DOS systems equipped with the Acrobat Reader software (widely available at no cost). Designed for electronic publishing, Adobe Acrobat lets a user create PDF “snapshots” of an electronic document that can then be viewed on screen or printed.
A bookbinding technique in which the pages are glued rather than sewn or stapled (saddle-stitched) to the cover. A perfect bound book is recognizable by its flat spine.
The use of highly specialized film and equipment to produce high-quality images suitable for publication.
Electronic images created with a digital camera and designed for use in electronic media such as the World Wide Web.
High-quality photos purchased from a “stock house,” which brokers the usage rights of images shot by various photographers. In general, stock photography fees are paid for the rights to reproduce a photograph for one project only, with the amount of the fee determined by the quantity of materials to be produced (such as a brochure), or the circulation of the publication in which it will appear (such as in an ad).
Photos or photo libraries that are purchased for a one-time fee, giving the owner unlimited rights to reproduce the images as much or as often as needed.
An image manipulation program created by Adobe, commonly used to alter photos and illustrations.
This format is widely used with Macintosh graphics and page-layout applications as an intermediary file format for transferring files between applications. This format is especially effective at compressing images that contain large areas of solid color.
A sales presentation where a proposal is presented to potential clients.
A team that develops communications action plans. The team deals with strategic and resource issues.
PMS (Pantone® Matching System)
A standardized ink color system that includes approximately 500 basic colors for both coated and uncoated paper stocks. An assigned number and formula accompany each color swatch in the PMS book, which enables design and printing professionals to identify and communicate specific colors. Also see process color.
“point & grunt”
A very simple detail piece a salesperson can use when meeting with clients face-to-face. A “point and grunt” detailer is designed to quickly convey the major messages the customer needs to know.
Transparent bag used in place of envelopes for mailings. (Primarily used for magazines, catalogs and other publications.)
A concise statement that clearly states a key message about a company/product relative to competitive companies/products. “The Un-Cola” was created to position 7Up against competitive cola products.
See public relations.
Staff member who writes public relations copy. (See public relations).
An item offered to a customer, usually free or at a nominal price, as an incentive to purchase or sample a product or service, provide information or respond to an offer.
Also referred to as a news release, this public relations tool is used to deliver information about a product, service or event to appropriate media.
press check/press proof
Viewing a sample of a printed piece while it is being printed. Press proofs are typically used only for complicated jobs that may require press adjustments to achieve the desired level of quality.
The primary colors used in 4-color printing: cyan, magenta, yellow and black. These can be adjusted for color, unlike PMS colors which come pre-mixed.
The physical processes a project goes through after it leaves the creative area, including pre-press, printing, manufacturing and packaging.
The person responsible for purchasing, soliciting estimates and acting as a liaison with vendors. He or she also monitors vendors’ performance (cost, quality, timeliness, etc.).
Project Development Director
Documents project objectives, strategy and audiences as developed by the planning and message teams for use by the creative team.
Staff member who supports and assists the Account Executive to ensure that projects are handled efficiently.
A reasonably accurate representation of how a printed project is intended to look. A proof is the final step in the quality control process prior to printing.
The process of planning, executing and evaluating programs that build public awareness and understanding of a company and its products/services by communicating through means other than paid advertising.
The person in charge of the overall management of a publication, especially as it relates to business and advertising decisions.
Official document that authorizes purchase of a product or service for a predetermined price.
Research generally conducted with focus groups or by using open-ended questions on surveys. The purpose of qualitative research is to obtain subjective information about a product or an ad campaign (e.g., Does the color of this product appeal to you? Why or why not?)
Research focused on statistical analysis of objective data, generally gathered through the use of surveys to large groups.
A graphics program that enables art directors to organize text and photos in electronic files.
A bitmap file created by mapping an image on a grid called a “raster.” GIF and BMP files are raster images.
The percentage of the target audience exposed to an ad at least once during a defined period of time.
A quantitative comparison of advertisements contained in a publication-evaluated on criteria such as “saw the ad,” “read the ad” and “found the ad useful”-typically conducted by an independent research company.
The alignment of image components that is required to correctly produce a clear, precise image. For example, the four colors in 4-color process printing must combine properly on the page to produce the desired result.
The useful/meaningful subset of an entire group as it relates to a client’s specific marketing objectives (e.g., demographic segments identified by age or household income).
Electronic images saved in a format that omits detail in order to reduce file size. “Low-res” images are typically used for initial layouts on desktop computers because they don’t require as much computer memory as high-resolution (“high-res”) images. The low-res images are then replaced with “high-res” images before final production.
Electronic images that include all information and details. These are generally used only for final production.
A fee paid to retain a professional’s services, usually on a long-term basis.
All corrections, additions or deletions made to a project during the creative and production process.
The colors (red, green, blue) used to create images on a PC monitor or TV screen. The art director is challenged to translate these colors to print using cyan, magenta, yellow and black. These are two distinct color formats.
A first draft of text (copy) for a project.
run of press (ROP)
Placement or positioning of an ad within a publication-determined by the publication instead of the advertiser.
A face-to-face meeting between a salesperson and a customer or prospective customer.
A tactic intended to generate increased sales in a specified amount of time. The goal is usually a strong and rapid response from consumers.
A process that captures an image in a format that can be used and manipulated electronically. The term scan also refers to the resulting file and/or proof of the file.
A printed, folded mailing piece that reserves space for addressing, postage, etc. and eliminates the need for an envelope.
See detail piece/detailer.
(SM) A mark used in the sale or advertising of services to identify and distinguish them. See trademark.
For broadcast media, the percent of a particular audience who is using a specific medium and tuned to a particular station during a defined time period.
share of voice
A competitive analysis of a product’s advertising exposure within a specific category or market. Analyses commonly are based on the number of printed pages or the dollar amount spent.
A thin plastic film heat-sealed around a product. Printers often are requested to shrink-wrap pieces in smaller quantities rather than bulk cartons.
A short section of copy focusing on a single issue and used to augment or summarize key points of the main article.
An advertiser’s name/address/phone/fax/e-mail/URL information, typically displayed in a consistent location on ads or collateral pieces.
Stock Keeping Unit. Part of a standardized inventory management system in which each product is given a unique number that can be tracked.
A brochure, typically 4 to 6 panels, that is folded to fit in a #10 envelope.
Deadline date for written confirmation of a client’s commitment to run an ad in a specific issue of a publication.
Notification to a media vendor, either written or verbal, of intentions to run an ad.
Work done with no guarantee of remuneration but with the hope of landing a client’s account and, subsequently, the opportunity to recapture the investment made in creating the spec work.
An item offered to a customer or prospect, usually free or at a nominal price as an inducement. Also see tchatchke.
The use of a specific ink color on a printed piece. Also used as “2 spot colors” or “3 spots” to distinguish from 4-color process. Spot colors are sometimes used in addition to process colors, usually to print a specific color in a logo.
Two facing pages of a magazine or brochure, typically with related matter on both pages.
A small, printed piece designed to be inserted into an envelope carrying a customer’s invoice or other business communications.
A binding method, suitable for brochures and short booklets, that uses staples to attach sheets to the cover through the centerfold.
A secondary heading, usually in smaller type than the main heading or headline.
A smaller sized newspaper with a standard size designation of 11″ x 17″.
A line of copy that summarizes the sales statement. Also another name for the positioning statement.
A Yiddish word for knickknacks or trinkets, often used when referring to items given away as part of a promotion (e.g., keychains, pens, coffee mugs).
A legal form on which an individual consents to the use of his or her comments for advertising or promotional purposes.
A small, sketched visualization of an illustration or design. Usually done early in the process.
Tagged-Image File Format. A graphics file format that can be exchanged between various programs and computer platforms. When saving an Adobe Photoshop image in this format, it can be saved in a format that can be read by Macintosh or a PC.
To paste a sheet of paper onto a page in a book before or after binding.
An item glued to a printed piece. To attach endsheets or other material to the outside of folded sections by machine application of a thin strip of adhesive.
A name or symbol denoting that a company or product name is legally restricted to use only by the owner or manufacturer. Generally, the T symbol is used when a trademark has been applied for, and the ® symbol is used once the name is legally registered.
A full-color translucent photographic film positive. Color slides are also referred to as transparencies. Standard sizes: 2 ¼”, 4″ x 5″, 8″ x 10″.
An item printed using two ink colors. The most common 2-color combination is black ink paired with one additional ink color.
A complete set of fonts for a specific style of type, such as Arial, Garamond or Times Roman. Common variations include italic, bold, narrow, bold italic, etc.
Universal Product Code, a standardized coding and labeling system for consumer products and product coupons. UPCs are a barcode format that can be “read” instantly by electronic scanners.
Uncoated paper stocks have a non-glossy finish and come in a wide variety of styles, including smooth, linen and felt. Uncoated paper is recommended for projects that will be written on, such as stationery or BRCs.
Legal permission to reproduce copy, photos, logos or other intellectual property.
A glossy, dull or matte coating applied to printed materials to increase durability and enhance appearance, typically used on annual reports, brochures and catalogs. UV coatings are quickly dried on the press by exposure to ultraviolet light.
A thin, protective coating applied to paper during the printing process, generally to enhance appearance and reduce scuffing. Varnish requires more drying time than UV coatings.
An image that uses mathematical objects (vectors) to describe its characteristics, rather than a grid (bitmap). Vector graphics are often used for type and bold graphics such as logos, because they can be scaled to any size without distortion.
A direct print made on photographic paper from a halftone screen. It yields a black and white proof.
Type and/or graphic banner, starburst, etc., designed to grab a reader’s attention immediately.
Any area on a page that has no text or graphics printed on it.
Windows Metafiles A type of vector graphic used in Windows applications such as Word and Power Point.
WordPerfect graphic An image format used by the WordPerfect word processor.
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